October 31, 2009

Conscious State PSI & Dream State PSI

An Integrated Perspective


A. Mental States

In my phenomenological activities I have defined two general categories of mental states in which psi phenomena are experienced:

  • Awake or conscious - CSP - Conscious State Psi

  • Asleep and dreaming - DSP - Dream State Psi

I consider dreams to be a form of delayed consciousness since we become aware of the dream consciously through memory recall when we awaken. We may experience lucid dreams when we are consciously aware during the dream.

Other types of mental states exist, such as during the transition between awake and sleep, or in various altered levels of consciousness such as hypnotic or trance conditions. Psi can be experienced in any of these altered states.

My initial use of CSP and DSP began in the early 1970s for attendees of my Psychic Realm educational programs. These terms provide a neutral and non-judgmental means of open discussion and evaluation of a variety of extrasensory or paranormal experiences independent of any process or origin assumptions, any cultural, religious or some other belief system.

I have presented this perspective on Conscious State Psi (CSP) and Dream State Psi (DSP) mental states along with my investigation results to workshops, various psi study groups, research symposiums, during radio talk programs, and professional conferences including the International Association for the Study of Dreams (IASD), Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE), International Remote Viewing Association (IRVA), and the Research Hour attendees at the Rhine Research Center (RRC), Durham, NC.

B. Psi Data Categories

Terms commonly used to describe extrasensory or paranormal experiences include extrasensory perception (ESP), telepathy, precognition, clairaudience (clear hearing), clairvoyance (clear seeing), remote viewing (RV), or the general label, psychic phenomena. The generic term, psi, was initially used for these experiences in the 1940s by researchers who studied many aspects of psychic phenomena.

Categorizing the types of psi data perceived during a CSP or DSP experience according to its sensory mode correspondence has practical significance and can assist in identifying a specific cognitive process or an individual's natural sensory preferences for experiencing psi. Terms like clairvoyance or remote viewing imply that the actual source of the psi data is from the environment, or from something that represents the external reality, although the actual source of the psi data is unknown. As we learn more about the nature of consciousness new terminology will evolve to replace the various terms we currently use for psi phenomena. Meanwhile, CSP and DSP are neutral transition terms for describing our psi potential.

Other categories of psi phenomena relate to the timing of the psi information. Precognition or presentiment refers to the future; retrocognition, to the past. Psi researchers often use double blind protocols, an experimental situation when no one knows the identity of the psi target. This protocol resembles precognition, since in principle the approaching future situation is unknown by anyone. Telepathy is a general category for psi experiences where someone's knowledge through presumed mind-to-mind contact is a possible source of the psi information, regardless of the information origin or in what sensory form it is actually perceived. The term telepathy, initially used in the late 1800s, related to experiences that resembled thought transfer between people and was believed to be a result of electromagnetic signals transmitted by the brain. Precognition experiences and psi experiments with individuals in electromagnetically shielded environments demonstrate that incidents labeled as telepathy are not facilitated by electromagnetic brain wave activity.

The following sections have a few examples of the CSP and DSP projects in which I have been directly involved, either as a facilitator or as a participant. These projects illustrate phenomenological aspects of the psi process and how the understanding of a psi project or psi target can be enhanced.


I have been investigating psi phenomena, both in the CSP and DSP mode since the late 1960s. My first connection with formal psi research in CSP/RV began in 1976 when I was assigned as the contract manager for the government remote viewing and application program at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International, in Menlo Park, CA. During my first contract review visit to SRI, I was asked by the research director, Dr. Hal Puthoff, to participate in a CSP/RV project so that I could understand the experimental protocol and hopefully, actually experience the phenomenon. Hal had randomly selected a location from a large target pool of possible sites in the San Francisco Bay area and would visit it during the 30 minute CSP/RV experimental session. While Hal was at this location, my task was to relax, desire to perceive features at that location and to sketch whatever impressions occurred. Sketches of mental imagery were desired, but the impressions could also include thoughts, impulses, sounds or some other cognitive experience. There was no way I could deduce or otherwise know which location, of hundreds, that Hal was visiting.

During that initial RV session at SRI, I had difficulty relaxing and suppressing routine memories and thoughts. Near the end of the 30 minute session vague imagery emerged in my visual field that reminded me of a barren wilderness. Then something like a long elevated wooden walkway or pathway appeared that seemed to extend across a garden-like field. I sketched the walkway and described the area as a "sunken garden."

After my impressions were recorded, I was taken to the target site for feedback. The randomly selected target was the Baylands Nature Preserve, a swampy wilderness adjacent to San Francisco Bay. When I observed the wetlands from an observation platform, I could easily understand how this location had invoked a sunken garden and wilderness sense during my RV session.

While this first RV project seemed successful, I could not rule out good guessing. The next day I attempted my second RV target, another randomly selected location in the San Francisco Bay area. During this RV session, it was easier for me to relax and wait whatever impressions occurred. After a few minutes I perceived a complex scene with many buildings that surrounded a central open area. It seemed that tall plants were a dominant part of the scene. The sketches that I made on two pages were witnessed, copied and filed. When Hal returned to the SRI laboratory, he took me to the RV target location for feedback and session data evaluation. When I saw the actual RV site, I was surprised to see that my sketches had a recognizable correlation with the intended psi target.

Figure 1 shows my sketches from this formal RV experiment and photographs of the
target site, the Stanford University inner quadrangle.

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image 1

CSP/RV Sketches Target Site - Stanford University Quadrangle

Figure 1. CSP/RV Session Sketches and Target Site.

My sketches were not picture perfect, but they had basic correspondence to the key features at the RV target area. My impressions, a combination of visual imagery, impulses and thoughts, felt very natural, almost like a daydream.

I participated in other experiments at SRI as a facilitator and data evaluator as the contract manager. Thus began my CSP/RV investigations and I remained with the government sponsored RV research and applications program in various roles for 17 years. Eventually the government RV program became known as STARGATE, a word that I coined as the director from 1990-1993.

The evidence from RV research indicated that RV is a real but usually latent ability that is potentially available to anyone who desires to uncover it. I also discovered that RV is only one aspect of our psi potentials and that psi is a spectrum that can manifest in a variety of ways.

Throughout my life I have experienced intuitions and spontaneous psi incidents, including precognitive dreams. These spontaneous incidents increased after I became involved in RV research and applications. I continued exploring my own psi potentials. Through my seminars and workshops I began working with individuals in the local area who were interested in uncovering CSP and DSP talents. For my psi evaluation projects I used pictorial material for psi targets instead of geographic locations as SRI had done since pictures were easier to facilitate, provide feedback and evaluate.

Figure 2 has the results of a CSP project. P.C., a research colleague, was the RVer located 1000 miles from the target picture. Feedback was provided via email only after receiving the RV session sketches and written material. For this project, I used a target observer protocol and kept focus on the target picture during the 15 minute CSP/RV session.

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CSP/RV Session Sketches CSP/RV Pictorial Target

Figure 2. CSP/RV Session Sketches and Pictorial Target.

The sketch of whirling energy made by P. C. during the CSP/RV session correlates with the flame dynamics of the torch in the target picture. The sketch of a mask generally correlates with the face-like appearance of the tall structure shown in the picture. However, naming the structure as a mask was incorrect. A psi participant in an RV project may not perceive the psi target material with sufficient accuracy, or may not recognize it even if it is perceived and sketched accurately. If the RV sketch is very accurate and elements at the site or on the psi target picture are familiar to the RVer, then correct identification and naming can occur. It is as if the primary CSP/RV process involves pattern matching, not pattern recognition.


Most of us occasionally experience intuitions, hunches or synchronicities that indicate more than good guessing or chance is involved. These experiences hint that something extrasensory and of a psi origin has occurred. Many people experience their first clear evidence of psi reality in a dream. The content of the psi dream can be very specific, easy to recall and easily recognized as correlating to a future situation or to something existing that is learned of after the dream. The dream may provide information about a potential future event to help the dreamer be better prepared for the emerging incident. The dream may have sufficient information for the dreamer to take avoidance or preventive action. Some DSP dreams present information about current unknown but important situations such as for relationships or locating something lost. While important DSP experiences can be easily recalled, there are very likely many other psi dreams about minor situations that are not recalled or not recognized as of psi origin even when the situation dreamt about occurs. It is possible for anyone to routinely experience psi dreaming in an exploratory context by working independently or by working with others who can develop experimental DSP projects for a variety of DSP targets such as pictures, art prints, photographs, geographic locations or imagery visualized by a colleague.

I have facilitated several thousand DSP projects for others in groups, workshops, and for myself. These DSP projects are not intended for scientific proof, but are for practice, proficiency enhancement, evaluation experience and for gaining insight into the DSP process.

Figure 3 has results of a project that was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Dreams (IASD) during one of their annual conferences. The target picture for the participants was a cartoon collage representing the Pinocchio story. The psi dreamers who participated had three conceptual psi access options: (1) access the picture's content known to the picture's observer, a dream telepathy concept; (2) access the target picture's content directly , a clairvoyant or remote viewing concept; or (3) access via precognition their own future when they would receive feedback on the actual picture. The target picture was chosen at random from a pool of four pictures, each with diverse composition and secured in four separate opaque envelopes. The designated target picture observer who had no further contact with the participants opened the sealed envelope in private, observed the picture and intended for the participants to dream about the picture. Over two thirds of the thirty participants had one or more elements of the target picture appear in their dreams.

I was unable to attend the meeting where the sealed envelope was randomly selected and the target picture observer identified. Nevertheless, that night I focused on a desire to experience and recall a psi dream about the target picture, whatever and wherever it was. I was at a location 50 miles distant from the target picture. Four dreams occurred, and as soon as I could in the morning, I made sketches of the imagery perceived at the dreams' endings.

Previously I had discovered that a dream's ending has the most accurate information, and that complex psi target pictures are usually presented in a sequence of several dreams, each with a different aspect of the picture.

Figure 3 has my composite sketches of the imagery from the endings of these four dreams.

DSP Composite Sketches Target Picture - Pinocchio Story

Figure 3. DSP Sketches and Target Picture.

The next day after the participants' dream entries were submitted and after the target picture was revealed, I discovered that my four dreams did present the major elements of the complex picture. None of the dreams had a specific Pinocchio theme. Nevertheless, based on these dreams and my sketches I was able to correctly select the Pinocchio target picture from a duplicate set of the four possible targets prior to the posting of the actual target picture. The primary correlating images were the odd animal facing left, the concentric circular area that seems to be a target for arrows, and the presence of an unusual figure in a white shirt (not drawn). This psi dream project illustrates how a series of dreams can provide information about different aspects of the target picture, and that combining them presents a more complete understanding than only one dream.

For this DSP project it appears that a clairvoyant or remote viewing process occurred since I did not know the identity of the target picture's observer. There is another possibility. The psi dreams that night may have been precognitive of the time the next day when I actually saw the target picture after it was posted.

Figure 4 has another DSP project hosted by the IASD during a two week online psyberdreaming conference. This explored precognition dreaming with the DSP target picture chosen three days after the dream night. The picture was selected randomly by computer from a large target pool of paintings, art work and other types of pictorial material. The target picture would be 500 miles distant from my location. Two days prior to the target picture selection dream inputs from all of the participants were sent via email to C. P. and R. W., the IASD precognitive dream project facilitators. Five days after the specified dream night feedback was provided when the picture was posted on the conference Internet site.

DSP Composite Sketch Target Picture - Uncle Tom's Cabin

Figure 4. DSP Sketches and Precognitive Target Picture

On the specified night of the dreams three days prior to the target picture selection, I set the intention to dream about that future target picture. I recalled three dreams and developed a composite sketch of their endings. The primary dream images were a river, white floating objects, animal legs, an animal face, footprints and a human figure in a blue sweater. All of these dream elements are in the target picture. The hazy atmosphere in the painting and poor contrast boundaries between the various human and animal figures probably prevented their clear presentation in the dreams. The specific story line of the Uncle Tom's Cabin episode was not apparent in any of the dreams. As in Figure 3 a series of dreams provided information about different aspects of the intended target picture.

Figure 5 illustrates how a series of psi dreams can improve the understanding of the central feature in a psi target picture. The DSP objective was to dream about a picture or photograph that would be published on the first page of a local area newspaper three days in the future. Three dreams occurred that night. I sketched the ending of each dream as soon as possible in the morning.

Figure 5 has these sketches and the photograph in the future newspaper.

DSP Composite Sketches Future Newspaper Photograph

Figure 5. DSP Sketches and Future Newspaper Photograph

The endings of the first two dreams are in the top sketch and the ending of the third dream is shown in the bottom sketch. It appears that the dreams provided a progressively complex representation of the pile of rocks shown in the photograph.

The first dream had only a simple multi-sided geometric shape that approximated the basic boundary of the rock pile. The second dream presented a stack of objects that resembled coins as an approximation of the tightly packed rocks. The third dream presented a more complete approximation of the rock pile including the basic geometric form of the pile and the irregular shapes of the many stacked rocks within it. Each dream provided different information about the central feature in the photograph. This dream sequence suggests that adaptive pattern matching is a fundamental aspect of the psi process.

The photograph in this future newspaper article was taken one day after the night of the dreams and therefore did not exist at the time of the dreams. I have facilitated many other psi projects with future newspaper photographs as the intended psi target. In one third of these projects the photograph had not been taken at the time of the CSP or DSP experience. I consider such results as good evidence for precognition since real time psi access could have occurred.


Improved representations of a specific psi target picture or a geographic location can occur when results from several CSP sessions or several DSP dreams are combined. These multiple responses can be from different people or from one individual performing a series of CSP sessions or DSP dreams for the same target. It is also possible to improve the understanding of a psi target by combining results from both CSP and DSP access of the same target.

Figure 6 illustrates an intercontinental distant psi project when one person combines CSP and DSP data for the same target picture. At a predetermined time, B.H., a colleague in Vienna, Austria selected a target picture at random from a large pool of pictures and focused on its content for 15 minutes. At that time, I sought CSP impressions about that 7,000 mile distant target picture. Later that evening, I set my intention for DSP and to dream about the same target picture. The next day I developed a composite sketch from both the CSP and DSP data, had it witnessed by a Notary Public and then sent it via email to my colleague in Europe. Several days after this sketch was sent, I received a copy of the target picture from my colleague via email for feedback and evaluation.

Figure 6 has my composite CSP and DSP sketches and the target picture.

Combined CSP and DSP Sketches Target Picture - Whirling Dervishes

Figure 6. CSP and DSP Sketches and Target Picture

The CSP data provided information about the complex structural background, and the DSP data provided a scene with dynamic dancers on a stage. The sketch of the dancer with a yellow dress corresponds with the picture's central figure, a whirling dervish in a yellow skirt or gown. Combining both CSP and DSP information resulted in a more complete representation of the target picture than either one individually. The CSP data focused on form-structure, the DSP on people and their activities. In the dream, the yellow color of the dancer's gown was extremely vivid, and was a near exact correlation with the yellow color of the gown worn by the central figure in the picture. In most of my DSP projects, I have found that colors in the dream usually correlate very well with the colors in the target picture.

The dream had presented two distinct actions, and I had sketched only the ending of the second part of the dream that presented the dancers. The first part of the dream was an action fist fight involving people who resembled cowboys. The dream action transitioned suddenly to the graceful dancers who were spinning around on a stage. When I received feedback and first saw the target picture, my initial reaction was that it showed chaotic scene in an old west saloon. It seems that the first part of the dream was the result of my personal interpretation of the picture's content, and the second part resulted from what my colleague knew about the picture. If so, this suggests the first part of the dream resulted from a clairvoyant or remote viewing access of the target picture's content that approximated the forms or shapes of the dancers. The dreaming process then matched these forms with similar imagery from my memory of western movies. In the second part of the dream, a mind-to-mind connection seems to have occurred with my colleague who knew the picture's dancing context and who had been visualizing whirling dervishes spinning around on a stage. A telepathic and a remote viewing process probably led to the creation of the DSP dream episodes.

Figure 7 illustrates the results of combining the CSP and DSP data from two different people for a precognitive target picture.

CSP and DSP Sketches Future Newspaper Picture Fast Food

Figure 7. CSP and DSP sketches and Future Newspaper Picture

The intended psi target picture was for a local newspaper photograph for a specific page three days in the future. The top sketch in Figure 7 was provided by colleague, P.C., 1000 miles distant during a CSP/RV session. Later that same night her psi dream presented a scenario which focused on food and cooking. The bottom sketch has the ending scene of my dream for the same night. In the dream I was traveling over twisting roads to a popular restaurant. Both CSP and DSP presented structural features similar to some of those in the future newspaper cartoon picture. Both dreams presented a food theme. Combining CSP and DSP information provided a more complete description of the future newspaper picture than either CSP or DSP alone provided. The dreams contained the basic meaning of the future picture.

The food theme is apparent from the words in the picture and in the text in the accompanying article. Either the words were accessed during the night of the dreams or the configurations of the signs in the picture led to the food theme recognition due to memory associations.

The cartoon picture appeared in the newspaper three days after the CSP and DSP experiences and was prepared earlier by the newspaper's art staff. The CSP and DSP results are a precognitive experience for the psi participants even though the picture did already exist somewhere.

Here is another example of telepathic and a clairvoyant/remote viewing access occurring for the same target. This was part of a series in which I was using illusions as psi targets to explore their effects on our cognitive processes. I selected an imbedded 3-D illusion as a psi target that I presumed would be very difficult for my colleague to perceive. She was not informed that the target would be an illusion. I was the picture observer 1,000 miles distant from her location. Feedback was provided via email a day after I received the written descriptions and sketches of the CSP and DSP results.

The 3-D illusion initially appears to be an abstract chaotic mix of vague or form-less colored areas until focus is shifted to an imagery point in front of or behind the picture. After a few seconds a 3-D image, like a 3-D hologram, suddenly appears in the visual field that reveals the specific form imbedded in the 2-D array of various colors on the picture. Most people can eventually see the 3-D image. This virtual image creation process results from how our two eyes present information to the brain so that our visual environment can be reproduced stereoscopically as a 3 dimensional experience. If you can see the imbedded image with both eyes open; and then close one eye the image will suddenly vanish. If you gaze at the imbedded 3-D illusion with one eye closed, you will be unable to see the imbedded image.

During her CSP session, P.C. experienced "strong energetic sensations twirling round and round... something like a turbine because of the rotation or turning feelings." Her sketches had many circular lines and vague blade or fan like shapes. These impressions correlate with the 2-D visual appearance of the target picture since there are indistinct curving shapes in the color pattern. A sense of movement or turning can be invoked by the way the colors merge and flow together. However, these CSP impressions had no correlation with the 3-D imbedded image.

Following the CSP session, P. C. focused on a desire to experience a psi dream that night about the target picture for additional information. The dream that occurred was highly unusual and not typical of her dream experiences.

"I am inside a most unusual building that is extremely colorful. Each room is decorated with lots and lots of colors. The central room is painted on all four walls and the floor with the color of tiger's fur with strong-orange stripes and bits of black and brown. The figure of an animal, like a tiger man, suddenly emerges from the wall."

The ending scene in her dream, with an animal emerging from the wall, is similar to the visual imagery that can be seen only after gazing in front of or beyond this illusion picture. The dream dynamics of "something emerging" is an accurate description of the visual dynamics created by the illusion as it transitions from a chaotic visual field to the 3-D hologram-like image. The imbedded image in this illusion is a lamb. Due to the dominant red-blue-yellow colors in the picture, the animal that emerges when staring beyond the picture seems to be more like a tiger or leopard than a lamb.

It seems that two types of psi access processes occurred for this project. During the CSP phase, the overall color patterns on the surface of the illusion were accessed via a clairvoyant or remote viewing process. During the DSP phase a telepathic process may have occurred involving access to what I knew about the invisible image imbedded in the colored patterns of the illusion. When I was observing the illusion during the 15 minute target picture focus period, a 3-D animal image emerged in my visual field that I thought was a tiger or a leopard. I did not realize that the image was supposed to be a lamb until later.

It is also possible that P.C. saw the imbedded image through highly accurate remote viewing access of the picture's entire surface followed by normal stereoscopic visual processing. However, several weeks after this psi project, P.C. informed me that she had discovered why she could not see the imbedded image even after lengthy direct observation of the illusion. During an eye exam, an ophthalmologist explained that she has a vision defect which prevents her from seeing stereoscopically. Due to this unusual visual condition, I believe it reasonable to conclude that her DSP dream of the emerging tiger-like animal figure resulted from a telepathic access of what I knew about the picture's hidden imagery, and not from a clairvoyant or remote viewing process. Consequently, P.C. could not have precognitively accessed the imagery imbedded in this picture at the future time when she received feedback and actually saw the picture. Nor did she access precognitively what I would say during feedback since I told her at that time that the imbedded image was a lamb.

I am aware of no other psi project where the telepathic process is demonstrated as clearly as in this 3-D illusion experiment. P.C.'s accurate dream imagery could not have occurred by direct psi access of the target picture's visual appearance, either during the RV session or at any other time. The dream image that resembled a tiger had to be a result of telepathic access of what I knew and interpreted about the illusion at the time of the RV session.

Telepathy, or mind-to-mind contact, can be a viable psi experience for most of us and may be the primary mode of psi perception when the psi information involves something known by someone and is of personal significance.

Results of this psi experiment with P.C. suggest that the psi process for pictorial targets may be more like single eye monovision and not two eye stereoscopic vision. If so, psi participants with normal vision would not succeed in identifying imbedded images in this type of 3-D illusion when a double blind protocol is used where no one knows the identity of the hidden images. If they can identify the imbedded image, then the results would demonstrate precognition of the future time when they receive feedback and can directly see the illusion.


The most general observation about psi information is that some types are experienced similar to how we perceive reality through our usual senses.

In ordinary vision, for example, we may observe an object but do not know what it is unless we had previous experience with that object. Sensory inputs are initially processed in pre-verbal or non-logical regions of the brain. This correlates to the basic functions of the right hemisphere of the brain which is primarily involved in pattern matching, holistic and non-linear processes. The sensory information is subsequently processed by the left hemisphere which is primarily involved with linear, logical and categorizing functions. Other brain regions involved at this stage are associated with emotion.

Similarly, in psi perception sensory type information is very likely initially processed through right hemisphere of the brain. Even though the original psi input may be accurate, its interpretation is dependent on left brain hemisphere processing and how well it can be matched or correlated with what is already stored in memory.

It is also possible that psi information can by-pass sensory type processing and be perceived directly as a specific category, such as a name or function. A part of the brain that processes words or stores the meaning of words or images is probably activated.

Psi information that has reliable verbal or naming content suggests that the information source may have been someone's knowledge and that a direct mind-to-mind access or contact occurred. The question of exactly how this can occur cannot be answered and must await a better understanding of the mind and the subconscious.

It may be that all of reality is contained in a representation of reality, something like a global hologram that stores knowledge available to all sentient beings. Our mind may not be all in the physical brain. An aspect of our brain may be part of, or connects with, this hypothetical global mind hologram through the psi process. Advances in quantum physics involving phenomenon referred to as non-localality provide an analogy. Elementary particles once coupled together through a quantum process retain an instantaneous link no matter where they are in the universe. For psi to occur, the mind would have a similar connecting principle with other minds or with a representation of them and space time reality.

Precognition, the mental ability to perceive emerging events or future situations, also suggests that something like a global mind hologram exists. For precognition to occur, such a hypothetical mind hologram would also have information storage and a projection capability. In such a concept, the future is not a "real" existent future in some alternative reality or multi-dimension, but is a "now" that is projected in a virtual sense that can also be perceived through the psi process. As in any forecast, the resulting future is a probability and not about a fixed fate. This is consistent with the probabilistic nature of quantum physics. It may be that new research in quantum physics will help in understanding precognition and psi in general. The reverse may also occur. A better understanding of precognition may help in uncovering the mysteries of quantum physics.

A variety of concepts for the source of psi exists, and are metaphysical in nature. The hypothetical global mind hologram is also a non-physical concept, but it has the advantage of eventually linking in principle, with known physical phenomenon involving the recording of patterns (the root principle for holograms) and the quantum world or probabilities. In this sense, it is a bridging concept and may be helpful until a better connecting principle can be developed.

Regardless of the source of psi information, the data perceived during a CSP or DSP experience can provide insight into some aspects of the psi process. In the examples previously presented and in hundreds of others that I have facilitated and observed something like adaptive pattern matching occurs, at least for visual type experiences. In adaptive matching, psi information is processed in the brain's neural nets progressing from approximation to a detailed representation. By repeating the intention for psi access of the same psi target or objective, the quality of the information can be further improved especially if both CSP and DSP modes are sought. Combining results from several individuals or from an individual working independently enhances the quality and completeness of the psi information.

The use of several psi sensitives for the same psi task has been a successful strategy in some law enforcement cases and in the operational remote viewing projects performed during the Stargate program. Some psi researchers object to considering multiple inputs for the same psi task due to an argument known as the stacking effect when something in current news by chance relates to the random chosen psi target. The results of the psi experiment might be artificially enhanced if some the psi participants reported on those recent memories and not on valid psi experiences. It would be difficult to distinguish memory from psi information in this situation.

It has been my experience that the stacking effect is negligible in practical psi applications when the psi sensitives involved have a reliable track record. It is a concern when statistical techniques require this consideration especially if the experimental situation involves inexperienced individuals for psi data production. It is always prudent to take chance occurrence or other causes into consideration when evaluation any type of psi data, even for experienced practitioners.

VI. Try Your Psi

My research has verified that conscious state psi (CSP), including remote viewing, and dream state psi (DSP), including dream telepathy, can be synergistic. A combined
conscious state and dream state approach to the same psi task provides additional or different information than either one alone. For example consider a psi project where you are asked to describe a picture that someone is observing. You intend to access the picture directly via CSP (e.g., clairvoyance, remote viewing) by achieving a relaxed state and desiring to receive any cognitive impressions that correspond to the target and then sketch your impressions as accurately as possible.

After sketching your CSP impressions, put them aside and then re-focus on accessing the same target picture later that night in a psi dream. You may explore two approaches: (1) set your intention to experience a psi dream that shows the visual content of the picture, after that occurs, (2) set your intention to experience a telepathic dream that presents the meaning of the target picture as known by the picture's observer. The dreams may be similar, especially if the target picture has familiar elements. Some aspects of the target picture may not be familiar, and the second dream may accurately present the picture's meaning and be very different from the first one.

Another psi target possibility is to select a page in a pictorial magazine that you have not seen and seek CSP and DSP information about the picture on that particular page. Or you can seek psi information about a unique incident that you will encounter the 3 - 5 days.

After wake up, sketch your DSP impressions and then develop a composite of the conscious state CSP phase and the psi dream DSP material. I think you will be surprised as to how these two combined methods provide a better overall representation of the psi objective or target

While the examples in the previous sections are from select experimental situations, they illustrate an approach that is practical for any experimental or application task, especially when individuals with proven psi proficiencies are involved. Combining multiple CSP and DSP information can provide a more complete representation of an unknown area where someone is lost or present a better description of a potential approaching future incident than can only one of these modes. There are many other experimental and potential psi applications where CSP and DSP can be used synergistically.

Working with both CSP and DSP is a good way to begin exploring psi. When we exercise one psi mode, we also improve the other mode. Our psi process is ever ready, awake or asleep. So why not explore both CSP and DSP to discover the potential that we all have within us?

Copyright: Dale E. Graff